Distance learning (a work in progress)

Starting out from two options:

Synchronous (same time): For example a webinar, or live lecture/presentation via video

Asynchronous (any time): For example an online course, discussion board, recorded lectures

Each has advantages/disadvantages.

Synchronous learning activities can be captured for reuse in asynchronous settings. Lectures can be integrated into online courses, etc…

Ideally it would be a cycle of content creation, capture and re-use.

Synchronous technology:

Videoconferencing – High end = polycom or similar. Low end = Skype, WebEx

High end has higher costs and more intense bandwidth requirements (generally speaking) with specialized equipment.

Low end videoconferencing is less expensive, often desktop based, quality can vary wildly.

Interactivity may or may not be a feature of videoconferencing (can participants ask questions or is it a lecture)

Asynchronous technology

Learning content management systems (Moodle, Blackboard) – Allow for the presentation of learning content that can be accessed by participants at any time. A LCMS integrates tools for content creation, assessment and presentation into a common application.

Asynchronous learning can be either interactive (integrating discussion forums, peer discussion, etc) or non-interactive (tutorials, recorded lectures)

Capturing content for re-use

Video

Video can be an effective method for capturing and re-presenting learning opportunities. Whether it is a lecture or a demonstration of a specific technique, video can extend the reach of an expert to a larger audience brining new knowledge and content to underserved audiences. Video can stand alone to function as a tutorial, or be integrated into a LCMS as part of a structured learning experience.

Video capture has become much more affordable, and it is possible to produce high quality video for instructional use with fairly inexpensive equipment. Key to producing good quality video is a familiarity with the equipment and good audio quality. Someone who is comfortable using a video camera can produce more usable video with low end equipment who compared to someone who has expensive gear but doesn’t know how to use it.

This is a fairly universal lesson – knowing the tools and how to use them can produce effective and meaningful results. Deploying new, expensive, fancy tools and technologies for the sake of ‘using’ the latest and greatest will not have the same impact if you do not know how to use them effectively. This may seem like stating the obvious, but where technology is concerned it must be said- over and over again.

Narrated PowerPoint

PowerPoint can too often be deadly. However, when used properly they can help structure material for discussion or content dissemination. Being able to capture a PowerPoint with narration can create effective modules for learning use.  There are effective software packages that make the creation of narrated PowerPoint easy and potentially interactive. Again, one of the key elements to creating a narrated PowerPoint is the audio quality.

Webinars

Webinars can be recorded. This can be an effective means of capturing content, if the quality is high enough. Audio problems can be an issue with webinars. Inexperienced users can also make it challenging to produce high quality content for re-use.

Jus to re-emphasize – knowing the tools and how to use them can produce effective and meaningful results. Spending time working with any potential instructors who are going to be using Webinars so that they feel comfortable with the tool is time well spent.

Digital literacy – the key to unlocking distance learning

Regardless of how much technology we throw at an issue, the measure of effectiveness comes down to people knowing how to use the technology to accomplish tasks. This is universally true.  In order for distance learning to have the desired outcome digital literacies must be present in both the instructor and participant.

At this point in time, with rare exceptions, any effort to use distance learning technologies as a tool for outreach and engagement must include elements of digital literacy training. I would argue that this is more important than any given technology choice. Tools, a variety of tools, can be used to create the end result – but no tool can do it on its own. Developing the necessary skill set to effectively use distance learning technologies will be the make or break factor in any effort.

Useful Citations

Araque, J. C., Maiden, R. P., Bravo, N., Estrada, I., Evans, R., Hubchik, K., … & Reddy, M. (2013). Computer usage and access in low-income urban communities. Computers in Human Behavior29(4), 1393-1401.

Borthwick K., Dickens A. (2013), The Community Café: creating and sharing open educational resources with community-based language teachers, Journal of e-Learning and Knowledge Society, v.9, n.1, 73-83. ISSN: 1826-6223, e-ISSN:1971-8829

Clary, R. M., & Wandersee, J. H. (2010). Virtual Field Exercises in the Online Classroom: Practicing Science Teachers’ Perceptions of Effectiveness, Best Practices, and Implementation. Journal of College Science Teaching39(4), 50-58.

Jaggars, S. (2011). Online learning: does it help low-income and underprepared students?.

Jung, I., & Latchem, C. (2011). A model for e‐education: Extended teaching spaces and extended learning spaces. British Journal of Educational Technology42(1), 6-18.

Means, B., Toyama, Y., Murphy, R. F., & Baki, M. (2013). The Effectiveness of Online and Blended Learning: A Meta-Analysis of the Empirical Literature.Teachers College Record115, 1-47.

New York Library Association, 21st Century Information Literacy Standards for the Digital Learners of New York

Simonson, M. R. (2012). Teaching and learning at a distance: Foundations of distance education. Boston ; Munich [u.a.: Allyn & Bacon.

Open, Online Learning – Before and Beyond MOOC’s

Sildeset I used on February 20 to introduce OER’s and MOOC’s to colleagues. Some of the attendees were still quite puzzled by MOOC’s and how they differ from the model for online education that we have developed. This was a start to making that difference plan, but more work is needed. A large part of my life is engaged in work with distance learning and it is increasingly necessary to make plan distinctions between the many ways technology can be employed in learning. MOOC madness has obscured, at least for folks I talk with who are not paying a lot of attention to the subtleties, distinctions and (imho) threaten to damage the appropriate uses of technology for learning.